I agree that Armstrong Williams' promotion of NCLB, while taking money from the Department of Education without disclosing this fact, is propaganda. It is certainly third-order propaganda, as I call it, perhaps second-order propaganda. See my article (in a series), Kinds of Propaganda. There are serious consequences for the political position of conservatives, if it is second-order propaganda, because my classification implies we are working with constrained freedoms. Conservatives should oppose that. Politically, it is raw meat for liberals and the Democratic Party.